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DNA Analysis

"We are all Africans"

Ancestry DNA testing, offered by companies like AncestryDNA, 23andMe, MyHeritage DNA, and others, provides insights into a person's ancestral origins based on their genetic makeup. Here's a basic explanation of the accuracy and science behind these results:

1. DNA Extraction and Genotyping:

  • After a customer provides a saliva sample, DNA is extracted and processed using a chip that reads hundreds of thousands of specific DNA markers (known as SNPs, or single nucleotide polymorphisms).

  • This genotyping is highly accurate. Lab techniques have been refined over the years, so the direct reading of your SNPs is quite reliable.


2. Reference Panels and Population Samples:

  • To determine ancestry, companies compare your DNA to reference panels. These panels consist of DNA samples from individuals from specific populations around the world.

  • The accuracy and representation of these panels can vary. The larger and more diverse the reference panel, the more accurate the ancestry estimates tend to be.


3. Estimation Algorithms:

  • Companies use statistical algorithms to estimate the proportion of your ancestry that comes from different regions or populations.

  • This is where the process can become a bit more uncertain. The estimation relies on the assumption that the reference populations are representative of ancestral populations. Due to migrations, population mixing, and other historical events, this might not always be the case.


4. Updates Over Time:

  • As companies acquire more data and refine their algorithms, ancestry estimates can change. So, someone who gets a result today might receive a slightly different result in a few years if they were to retest or if the company updates its database and methods.


5. Limitations and Potential Pitfalls:

  • Regional Overlaps: Genetic markers are often shared among populations that are geographically or historically close. This can sometimes blur the lines between distinct regions.

  • Historical Mobility: Ancient populations moved around, mixed, and left descendants in multiple places. A specific DNA marker might be associated with a certain region today but could have a broader historical distribution.

  • Personal Interpretation: It's important to understand that a DNA result indicating, for instance, "30% Scandinavian" doesn't mean one has a grandparent from Scandinavia. It means that roughly 30% of the tested DNA markers align with the reference population from that region.


6. Privacy Concerns:

  • While not directly related to accuracy, privacy has been a concern with DNA testing companies. Ensuring that your data is handled confidentially and understanding the company's data use policy is crucial.


While ancestry DNA results provide fascinating insights into one's heritage, it's essential to approach them as estimates rather than definitive answers. The science is sound, but there are inherent limitations and uncertainties in predicting ancestry based on current reference databases and algorithms.

 I had my DNA tested, and that of my parents and brother, in order to assist in identifying my genetic ancestry, and also to provide assistance with breaking down brick walls in my research. I took separate DNA tests using Ancestry DNA and 23andMe.  As this is a Kingshott site, I will obviously concentrate on my paternal DNA. 


DNA haplogroups are genetic groups or branches on the human family tree. They trace ancient lineages and migrations based on specific sets of genetic markers that are passed down largely unchanged from one generation to the next. There are two primary types of haplogroups, based on the types of DNA from which they are derived: Y-DNA haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups.

  1. Y-DNA Haplogroups:

    • These are based on the Y chromosome, which is passed from father to son. Thus, Y-DNA haplogroups trace paternal lineages.

    • Y-DNA haplogroups can provide insights into the ancient migrations and histories of male lineages in different parts of the world.

    • Given the nature of Y-DNA inheritance, these haplogroups can sometimes be associated with certain historical populations or events, like the spread of agriculture or the movement of specific tribes or groups.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Haplogroups:

    • MtDNA is passed from a mother to all her children, but only her daughters pass it on to the next generation. As a result, mtDNA haplogroups trace maternal lineages.

    • Since mtDNA mutates at a relatively consistent rate, scientists can estimate the age and branching patterns of different mtDNA haplogroups, offering insights into the ancient migrations and histories of female lineages.


Origin & Evolution:

  • Haplogroups have evolved over tens of thousands of years. As human populations migrated and settled in different parts of the world, small mutations in DNA accumulated. Over time, these mutations led to the formation of distinct haplogroups.

  • Each haplogroup can further be divided into sub-haplogroups, which represent more recent branches on the family tree.



  • Haplogroups give a deep historical perspective on one's ancestry, reaching back thousands or even tens of thousands of years. They can provide information about ancient ancestry that historical records or even archaeological findings might not capture.

  • For those interested in genealogy, knowing your haplogroup can provide context about the distant origins and migrations of your paternal or maternal ancestors.



  • Haplogroups are identified using specific markers (usually single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs) in the DNA. Commercial genetic testing companies often provide information on an individual's Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups (if they test for those specific markers).


It's important to remember that while haplogroups provide insights into ancient ancestry on the direct paternal or maternal lines, they represent only a tiny fraction of one's entire ancestry. After all, everyone has many lines of ancestry beyond just the direct maternal and paternal lines.


My particular paternal Haplogroup is designated I-Z58. 

Haplogroup I-Z58 is a subclade of the larger Haplogroup I. 

Haplogroup I:

  • Origins: Haplogroup I is one of the oldest and most diverse haplogroups in Europe. It likely originated around 25,000-30,000 years ago, possibly in the Balkans or Southern Europe. Haplogroup I bearers endured the last Ice Age in refugia, notably in the Balkans.

  • Post-Ice Age: After the Ice Age, populations carrying Haplogroup I began to repopulate Northern Europe. Haplogroup I is particularly prevalent among modern-day Scandinavians and Balkan populations.


Haplogroup I-Z58:

  • Origins: I-Z58 is a subclade of Haplogroup I, specifically under the I1 branch. It's important to note that I1 is the most common branch of Haplogroup I in Northern Europe.

  • Distribution: I-Z58, as a subclade of I1, has a presence in regions where I1 is predominant, such as in Scandinavia. I-Z58 might be associated with some of the historical migrations and expansions in Northern Europe, possibly including the movements of Germanic tribes.


It's important to remember that our understanding of haplogroups and their histories is a combination of genetics, archaeology, and linguistics. As more people are tested and as research progresses, the story can become clearer and more detailed.

This is a migration map showing the paternal DNA Haplogroup Migration from the first shared ancestor of us all, here marked as "Adam".

Practical Applications

So what does this all mean from a practical level? Well, it means that I am able to compare the DNA samples that I provided, with those submitted by other people. This is essentially by examining the amount of genetic material that we each share, using something called centimorgans. Essentially, the greater the number of centimorgans shared, the closer the relationship. 

The term centimorgan, abbreviated as "cM" is a unit that describes the genetic distance or linkage between DNA segments. In the context of genealogy and DNA testing, centimorgans are used to estimate the closeness of a familial relationship based on the amount of DNA shared between two individuals.

The more DNA two people share, the closer their familial relationship is likely to be. By examining shared cM values, it's possible to estimate how two individuals might be related, such as siblings, first cousins, second cousins, and so on.

Here are some general guidelines regarding shared DNA (in cM) for various familial relationships:

  1. Full Siblings: Approximately 2,500 to 3,400 cM

  2. Half Siblings: Approximately 1,300 to 2,300 cM

  3. Aunt/Uncle & Niece/Nephew: Approximately 1,300 to 2,300 cM (similar range as half-siblings)

  4. First Cousins: Approximately 550 to 1,200 cM

  5. First Cousins Once Removed: Approximately 275 to 650 cM

  6. Second Cousins: Approximately 100 to 450 cM

  7. Second Cousins Once Removed: Approximately 40 to 260 cM

  8. Third Cousins: Approximately 20 to 170 cM


These ranges can vary somewhat, as the amount of DNA shared can be influenced by factors such as recombination events during the formation of eggs and sperm. Thus, two first cousins might share a bit more or less than the typical range due to these natural variations.

Furthermore, beyond third cousins, the amount of DNA shared becomes progressively smaller and less consistent, making it more challenging to determine precise relationships based purely on shared cM values.

It's important to note that while shared cM values can provide strong clues about potential relationships, they often represent a range of possible relationships. For instance, someone who shares about 1,800 cM of DNA with another person could be a half-sibling, an aunt/uncle, or a niece/nephew. Therefore, DNA results should be interpreted in the broader context of known family history, other genealogical information, and other potential relationships within the shared cM range.

My DNA results are posted on my Ancestry DNA tree, along with those of my parents and brother. This allows me to identify which line, paternal or maternal, my potential links are, and has led to me identifying links that have been suspected, but unproven, for many years. 

I would highly recommend taking an Ancestry DNA test. 

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